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    • Abstract: Anatomy for Pilates DVD-ROMISBN 1-904369-75-8Publication date November 2007Created in partnership with Pilates World University this is a detailed training resourceand reference aimed at Pilates instructors and those in training.

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Anatomy for Pilates DVD-ROM
ISBN 1-904369-75-8
Publication date November 2007
Created in partnership with Pilates World University this is a detailed training resource
and reference aimed at Pilates instructors and those in training.
The anatomy section focuses on the skeletal, muscular and respiratory systems with
detailed 3D anatomy that includes all anatomical structures involved in the exercises.
3D anatomy section also includes anatomy text with links to 3D muscle atlas and
relevant muscle function animations.
Content will cover key fundamentals, key preparatory Pilates exercises, classical matwork
and movement types with supporting text, over 30 live video clips of exercises and some
animated sequences.
24 different anatomy views. All views can be rotated and all anatomical structures can be
Each anatomy view will consist of a maximum of 7 layers, which will enable all of the
individual muscles to be viewed clearly. Further, a muscle attachment layer will also be
12 Musculoskeletal views
Full body (final layer will be a Surface anatomy layer)
Muscles of the shoulder and arm
Muscles connecting the upper limb to the trunk
Vertebral column
Muscles of the thorax and abdomen
Thoracic cage
Muscles of respiration
The diaphragm
Muscles of the male pelvic floor
Muscles of the female pelvic floor
Muscles of the hip and thigh
Muscles of the leg and foot
4 Joint views
Shoulder joint
Elbow joint
Hip joint
Knee joint
7 Schematic joint views
Types of synovial joints ~ overview
Ball-and-socket joint
Hinge joint
Saddle joint
Pivot joint
Gliding joint
Condyloid joint
1 Respiratory system view
45 animations showing muscle function.
45 Muscle function animations
Lower extremity
1. Abduction/adduction of the hip I
2. Abduction/adduction of the hip II
3. External/internal rotation of the hip I
4. External/internal rotation of the hip II
5. External/internal rotation of the knee
6. Flexion/extension of the hip I
7. Flexion/extension of the hip II
8. Flexion/extension of the knee I
9. Flexion/extension of the knee II
10. Inversion/eversion of the subtalar joint
11. Plantarflexion/dorsiflexion of the ankle I
12. Plantarflexion/dorsiflexion of the ankle II
Upper extremity
13. Abduction/adduction of the shoulder
14. Elevation/depression of the scapula
15. External/internal rotation of the shoulder
16. Flexion/extension of the elbow
17. Flexion/extension of the shoulder I
18. Flexion/extension of the shoulder II
19. Flexion/extension of the wrist I
20. Flexion/extension of the wrist II
21. Pronation/supination of the forearm
22. Protraction/retraction of the scapula
23. Upward/downward rotation of the scapula
Pelvic floor
24. Contraction of the pelvic floor I
25. Contraction of the pelvic floor II
26. Contraction of the pelvic floor III
27. Contraction of the pelvic floor IV
Head and neck
28. Contralateral rotation of the head and cervical spine
29. Flexion/extension of the cervical spine
30. Flexion/extension of the head and cervical spine
31. Flexion/extension of the head on the neck
32. Ipsilateral rotation of the head and cervical spine
33. Lateral flexion of the head and cervical spine I
34. Lateral flexion of the head and cervical spine II
35. Flexion/extension of the trunk
36. Lateral flexion of the trunk
37. Lateral flexion of the trunk II
38. Lateral flexion of the trunk III
39. Respiration I
40. Respiration II
41. Rotation of the trunk I
42. Rotation of the trunk II
43. Rotation of the trunk III
Gross motor movement
44. Walking
45. Stand from sitting
The Muscle Atlas is a series of illustrations that show a muscle’s attachments as well as
the individual muscle in isolation. These illustrations will be linked in from the Anatomy
Adductor magnus Flexor digitorum longus Quadratus lumborum
Anconeus Flexor digitorum profundus Rectus abdominis
Biceps brachii Flexor digitorum Triceps brachii
Brachialis Flexor hallucis longus Rhomboids
Brachioradialis Flexor pollicis brevis Rotatores
Coracobrachialis Gastrocnemius Semimembranosus
Deltoid Gemellus inferior Semitendinosus
Erector spinae: iliocostalis Gemellus superior Biceps femoris
Erector spinae: iliocostalis Gluteus maximus Semispinalis thoracis
Erector spinae: iliocostalis Gluteus medius Semispinalis cervicis
Erector spinae: longisimus Infraspinatus Serratus anterior
Erector spinae: longisimus Internal oblique Soleus
Erector spinae: longisimus Interspinales Supinator
Erector spinae: splenius Latissimus dorsi Supraspinatus
Erector spinae: splenus Levator scapulae Tensor fascia latae
Erector spinae: splenus Multifidus Teres minor
Extensor carpi radialis Obturator externus Tibialis anterior
Extensor carpi radialis Obturator internus Tibialis posterior
Extensor carpi ulnaris Palmaris longus Transversus abdominis
Extensor digitorum Pectineus Trapezius
Extensor digitorum longus Pectoralis major Rectus femoris
Extensor hallucis longus Pectoralis minor Vastus intermedius
External oblique Piriformis Vastus lateralis
Fibularis brevis Popliteus Vastus medialis
Fibularis longus Pronator quadratus Iliacus
Flexor carpi radialis Pronator teres Subscapularis
Flexor carpi ulnaris Psoas major Semispinalis capitis
Two Pilates views, showing the movements Roll like a ball and Pelvic tilt. Each view will
consist of 2-3 layers, showing core muscles (multifidus, internal oblique and transversus
abdominis). The views will not be rotatable, but will allow the user to play the two Pilates
movements as animations that can be labelled.
The Pilates text will focus on:
Key Fundamentals
Key Preparatory Pilates Exercises
Classical Matwork Exercises
Movement Types
Where relevant, text articles will link to supporting material such as animations, videos or
illustrations/photographs. An example of a Pilates text article is included at the end of
this document as Appendix A.
The following text content will be included:
Key Fundamentals
Concentration/Self Awareness
Flowing Movements
Stamina/Muscular Endurance
Key Preparatory Pilates exercises
Sliding Leg into Knee Fold (Hip flexion/extension)
Supine Arm Raises (Shoulder flexion/extension)
Standing Arm Circles (Shoulder Circumduction)
Spine Curls (Spine (lumbar/thoracic) articulation, Hip extension)
Curl Ups (Spinal flexion; cervical/thoracic)
Hip Rolls (Spinal rotation; lumbar/thoracic)
Waist Twists (Spinal rotation; cervical/thoracic/lumbar)
Mermaid (Spinal lateral flexion; cervical/thoracic/lumbar; Shoulder abduction)
Dart (Spinal extension; cervical/thoracic, Shoulder lateral rotation, Hip lateral rotation)
Cobra (Spinal extension; cervical/thoracic/lumbar, Shoulder extension, Elbow extension)
Prone Leg Lifts (Hip extension)
Cat (Spine flexion/extension, Hip flexion/extension)
Roll Downs (Spine flexion/extension, Hip flexion/extension)
Side-lying Lift and Lower (Hip abduction)
Side-lying Adductor Lift (Hip adduction)
Classical Matwork Exercises
The Hundred
Roll Up
Roll Over
Leg Circles
Rolling like a Ball
Single Leg Stretch
Double Leg Stretch
Straight Single Leg Raises
Double Straight Leg Lowers
Spine Stretch Forward
Open-Leg Rocker
The Saw
Swan Dive
Single Leg Kick
Double Leg Kick
Spine Twists
The Twist
Kneeling Sidekicks
Movement Types
Lateral Flexion
Lateral Rotation
Medial Rotation
Lateral Rotation
Medial Rotation
In addition, the knee, ankle, elbow, and wrist joints will be covered in a similar fashion.
30 Pilates videos
The Quiz tab gives access to an automatically generated Anatomy Quiz, where users are
asked to identify anatomical structures. The Quiz consists of two types of questions:
“What is highlighted?” and “Can you find {x}”?
Musculoskeletal system views
Joint views
Schematic joint views
Respiratory system view
Pilates views
Spine Curls (Link to Movie)
Movement Focus
To mobilise the spine through flexion with segmental articulation of the vertebra.
Create openness in the hip and shoulder joints
To establish an awareness of global opposition through the sequential movement of
the spine.
Muscular Focus
Core stabilising complex (Powerhouse)
Hip extensors
Spinal flexors
Shoulder flexors
Shoulder extensors
Start position
Lie semi-supine on the mat.
Head spine and pelvis balanced in neutral alignment.
Feet and knees hip width.
Arms alongside the body resting on the floor, palms down.
1. Inhale: focus on releasing the body into the mat with length in the spine. The head,
spine and pelvis should be in their neutral zones with respect to one another and the
2. Exhale: increase the weight distribution in the feet so that the sacrum becomes lighter
on the mat. Send the sacrum along the mat away from the thoracic spine and the back of
the head. This will initiate the curling of the tailbone off the mat just a little, promoting a
small amount of lumbar flexion and hip extension.
3. Inhale: to maintain and consolidate the position.
4. Exhale: slowly curl back down lengthening out the spine, returning to the start
5. Inhale: release the sacrum back into the mat, thereby lightening the weight
distribution on the feet.
6. Exhale: repeat the process over again, this time peeling a little more of the spine off
the mat.
7. Inhale: to maintain and consolidate the spine’s position.
8. Exhale: roll the spine back down along the mat, vertebra by vertebra.
9. Inhale: release the sacrum back into the mat, thereby lightening the weight
distribution on the feet.
10. Exhale: continue to curl more of the spine off the mat each time until full hip
extension is achieved without the lumbar spine moving into extension.
11. Inhale: to maintain and consolidate the spine’s position. Begin to add the arm
pattern by raising the arms over the body through full shoulder flexion moving them
towards the floor laterally rotating the arms throughout the movement so the palms
finish facing one another.
12. Exhale: roll the spine back down along the mat, vertebra by vertebra.
13. Inhale: release the sacrum back into the mat, thereby lightening the weight
distribution on the feet. Return the arms from full shoulder flexion back to the floor
beside the body palms face down on the mat.
14. Wheel the spine in approximately four stages and then repeat the full spine curls with
the arm pattern another six times. The highest point will generally be when the weight is
across the upper thoracic spine and the head, the lumbar spine is in neutral and the hips
are fully extended.
Check Points
Take care not to arch the lumbar into extension at the top of the movement. Keep
the pubic bone above the ASIS throughout the movement.
Keep the weight even on both feet and try not to let the feet or knees roll in or out.
Keep the hip bones level with each other throughout.
Ensure that the neck doesn’t move into flexion or extension.
Aim to maintain length in the spine as you wheel back down. Initiate the roll down
by firstly softening the breastbone.
Focus on the opposition of the spine drawing down and away from the back of the
head and arms.

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